This page will give you additional information about the wall in the form of the experts' views.
We have extracted relevant sections from the following learned works:
THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF THE COUNTY OF ESSEX
by Philip Morant
(written in the 18th Century)The WALLS of this Town are still standing, but very much decayed in some places, particularly on the North-side. They are built of Stone, such as is found on our Eastern Coast; with a mixture of Roman Bricks. The cement is excellent, and incredibly strong but it suffers much in winter, especially in great rains, attended with sudden frosts and thaws. Where the Wall remains perfect, 'tis faced either with Roman Brick, or square Stones about seven or eight inches in diameter. The Thickness of it is various, in most parts Seven or Eight foot thick; but, about the Gates and Posterns it is much thicker. The Circumference of the whole Wall was measured in August 1746, and found to be as follows........ [not shown here]
That is, in the whole, 9280 feet and a half, or 3093 yards one foot and a half, or 1856 paces; equal to 562 Rods, seven feet and a half; very little more than a Mile and three quarters.
Within that compass there are contained a hundred and eight acres, two roods, and five perches of ground.
The Form of the Walls is near a trapezium, the longest sides whereof are the North and South: As may be seen in the ichnography.
Colchester being unquestionably a Roman Town, 'tis very probable that the Walls were originally built by the Romans. However, of this we have no certain and positive Evidence: as we have, that they were built long before the Norman times. For, in the year 921, K. Edward the Elder repaired the Walls, which had been battered and damaged the same year, when he took this Town from the Danes.
This Town-wall being look'd upon as the chief Strength and Security of the place, great care was taken for its preservation. Accordingly such persons as beat off, or meddled with, any of the Stones belonging thereto, or dug any pits or holes under or near it, were constantly indicted.
But more Care seems to have been taken to repair and keep it up, in the time of K. Richard II. than in any other reign. For, notice is taken in the Oath-book that the Bailiffs and Commonalty were daily repairing the Stone-walls of the Town, where they most wanted. And that King, in the 6th, 12th and 17th of his reign, did, of his special grace and favour, exempt the Burgesses of Colchester, from the charge of sending Representatives to Parliament; for three years, on the 6th and 17th; and for five years on the 12th; upon account of the great Expences they were at in repairing their Wall with lime and stone, for the safety of the Town against all Invaders. The same King, in the 16th of his reign, granted his royal License to Ralph Algar, Stephen Baron, and Henry Bosse, impowering them to grant and assign Two Messuages, Four acres of land, and the Advowson of the Hospital of the Holy Cross, to the Bailiffs and Commonalty and their Successors, as a help towards mending and repairing the Walls of the Town.
The like Exemption as that above mentioned, of sending Members to Parliament, and on the same account, was granted to the Free burgesses by K. Henry IV, in 1403, for six years ; And by K. Henry V, in the year 1421.
Thus, through the care of our Magistracy, these Walls continued in a tolerable condition; and, on account of them, the Town was look'd upon as a place of some Strength, before those murdering Engines, Canons and Mortars, were brought to their full perfection. But then, as it could make but little resistance, it became less considerable. The unhappy Siege, in 1648 was a great hurt to them, as it was also to the rest of the Town. And at present, instead of being duly repaired by the Chamberlains, as usual, they are chiefly kept up as a fence by those that have Gardens or other grounds adjoining thereto,
In these Walls there are four GATES,
1. Head-Gate, called in Records Heved or Haved-Gate; and in Latin Porta Capitalis. [Now taken down.] 2. North-Gate. 3. East-Gate. And 4. St.:, Botolph's-Gate, anciently called South-Gate. East-Gate fell down in 1651, and in the place where it stood were afterwards erected two brick Pillars; and the like where Head-gate stood.
There are also Three Posterns. 1. The West Postern, in St. Mary 's Church-yard: But when the Church was rebuilt, that Postern being low and inconvenient, part of the Wall was taken down in order to enlarge the Passage, and Stone steps made, instead of the sloping ascent there. 2. Schere-gate; called in Records South-Scherde; or South-Postern. 3. Rye-gate, as it is vulgarly called; or rather Rhee or Rea-Gate, that is the River-Gate, as leading to the River. It was anciently named the North, or King's Scherde. 'Twas taken down in the year 1659.
(An extract from Philip Morant's epic work of the 18th century, where his description clearly indicates that the walls on the east wall - which are now in such a poor state - were in fair condition in his time.)
VICTORIA COUNTY HISTORY of ESSEX
WALLS, GATES, AND POSTERNS [of Colchester]
Town walls c. 3,000 yd. long were built c. 65-80 A.D. when the Roman town was rebuilt after its destruction by Boudica. The walls were originally 8-to 10 ft. thick, built with a core of layered septaria and mortar faced with coursed septaria and tile. A number of internal towers, c. 6 ft. wide and c. 18 ft. long, probably placed at the end of streets, served as look-out posts and as platforms for weapons. There was a ditch outside the wall, and in the later 2nd century the wall was strengthened by the construction of a rampart behind it. There were probably six gates. The exceptionally large Balkerne gate in the west wall seems to have been built as a freestanding structure about the time of the foundation of the Roman town, possibly as a triumphal monument; it had two large central arches for vehicular traffic, flanked by two smaller pedestrian arches with guardrooms on either side. The gate was closed in the 4th century when the town ditch was extended across it; it was later blocked with a rough masonry wall. The south-west gate, the later Head gate, seems to have had two large arches, and the east gate may have had a central arch flanked by two pedestrian arches. The surviving north-east gate comprises a single arch, 11 ft. wide, and the north-west gate, the medieval North gate, may have been similar. There is no evidence for the south-east gate, which may have been on the site of the medieval South or St. Botolph's gate.
The Roman walls formed the basis of the medieval circuit. They were defended unsuccessfully by the Danes in 920, and were repaired by Edward the Elder in the same year; his work may have included the blocking of the Balkerne gate. Excavation has revealed a mid 11th century ditch on the south and east sides of the town, perhaps made in connection with a strengthening of the defences at the time of the threatened invasion of Cnut of Denmark. Major repairs, possibly amounting to rebuilding in places, were carried out in 1173-4, at the time of the rebellion of the young king, the burgesses being allowed at least part of the cost out of the farm of the town. No further work seems to have been done in the 13th century, and by the early 14th century the walls were decayed, that at the East gate being undermined by gravel digging. Wallgavel was payable from a house outside Scheregate in the south wall in 1310, and from a moor in Moor (Priory) Street south-east of the town in 1312, as well as, presumably, from other land and houses in the borough. It was apparently insufficient for the maintenance of the wall, for in 1312 the borough levied a `tallage' on the whole community for the repair of the walls and gates. That money probably paid for extensive repairs, but by 1329 houses were being built against the wall and on the town waste adjoining it, and in the mid 14th century several people were accused of taking stones, one as many as six cartloads, from the wall. One man in 1346 removed part of the crenellation of the wall.
The borough carried out extensive repairs between 1381 and c.1413, removing at least one house which had been built against the wall. By then part of the eastern end of the south wall had collapsed outwards and a new wall was built on top of its remains; five regularly spaced bastions were added at the same time round the south-east corner of the wall, between East gate and Scheregate. Some attempt seems to have been made to ensure the future maintenance of the wall: in 1392 three burgesses gave 2 houses, 4 a. of land, and the advowson of St. Cross hospital for the repair of the walls, and in 1394 a lease of land along the north wall from Ryegate to North bridge stipulated that the tenant should repair the wall. In 1398 another lease of land adjoining the wall reserved to the borough the right of access to the wail for its inspection and repair. By 1423, however, the wall was again being undermined by sand-digging, and in 1470 stones were being removed by the cartload. Outhouses had been built against the south wall near Scheregate by 1436, and alderman Robert Leche removed the blocking from a Roman drain arch at the Balkerne gate to make a new postern in 1535. In 1551 the chamberlain was accused of failing to repair the walls, the wall at Head gate being in danger of falling. The southern end of the east wall seems to have collapsed in the 16th century. Sand-digging under the wall and the removal of stones from it continued, but in 1579 and 1586 the offenders were ordered to repair the wall. In 1619 a licence was granted to build on the wall provided that the holder maintained the wall on which he built.
The walls were refurbished during the Civil War. In 1642, on a petition from the inhabitants, parliament voted £1500 for improving the defences of the town and the blockhouse, presumably the one at the entrance to the harbour; Sir Harbottle Grimston urged the mayor to take advantage of the grant and to raise more money in the town if necessary. By 1643 there were several forts within the town, one of them near the postern by St. Mary's-at-the-Walls, another in High Street. They do not appear to have been substantial works, and some may have been little more than pits revetted with wood, like that excavated in the south-east corner of the town. Nevertheless in 1648 the walls were weak, and there was a long gap in the north part of the circuit. When the royalist army took over the town that summer they filled such gaps with earth ramparts and strengthened other parts of the wall with `works', perhaps including the major outwork at the north-east corner of the town. The walls thus strengthened withstood the onslaught of the parliamentary cannon, although the tops of two old, ruined towers, presumably bastions, were demolished. After the surrender Fairfax ordered the demolition of the walls, an order repeated by the council of state in 1649 and apparently carried out in 1651. The south-west corner of the circuit, by the royalist battery in St. Mary's churchyard, seems to have been destroyed at that time, but most of the works destroyed were probably the ramparts and siege works built in 1648.
Complaints of stone-digging in the wall and building against it continued in the later 17th century, and no serious effort seems to have been made to maintain it. By 1694 the wall near Scheregate was level with the ground on the town side, and in 1711 the chamberlain was accused of endangering the lives of the inhabitants by failing to make a fence on the wall from Headgate to Schere-gate. Further complaints about the state of the wall were made in 1717 and 1722, and by 1724 most of the north wall west of Ryegate had gone. By 1748 the walls were being maintained only by those whose gardens adjoined them. About 185 ft. of the wall near the top of Balkerne Hill collapsed into the road in 1795, and 125 ft. a little further north collapsed c. 1850. By the 1890's two bastions had been incorporated into houses or workshops, and a third had been made into a Gothic summer house.
In 1866 the corporation paid the improvement commissioners to carry out minor repairs to the wall, apparently on Balkerne Hill. The corporation surveyed the walls in 1879, and considered repairing dangerous sections, but were deterred by doubts as to the ownership of the wall and consequent liability for its repair. In 1887 the museum committee of the borough council assumed responsibility for the wall and thereafter it was regularly inspected and repaired at the borough's expense. The committee also took steps to prevent the demolition of parts of the wall, but gave permission for a breach on Balkerne Hill and was unable to prevent a contractor removing a section of the wall at Headgate in 1901. After excavations in 1913 the foundations of the Balkerne gate were consolidated and the remaining portions of the gate and guardroom roofed over. Between 1967 and 1976 the question of the ownership of the wall again caused difficulties, the town council maintaining that the wall was the responsibility of the owners of adjoining land, and the Department of the Environment being unable to prevent the demolition of parts of the wall because notice of scheduling had not been served on all owners. Some repairs were carried out in 1980; in 1985 a 30-ft. section of the south wall was excavated and then demolished for the service road to the Culver shopping precinct; a major programme of restoration began in 1986.
The town was surrounded by a ditch in Roman and presumably also in early medieval times, but by the 14th century much of the ditch on the north and south sides seems to have been filled in and built over. There was a curtilage under the north wall outside Ryegate before 1242, and houses outside Scheregate, presumably in the ditch, by 1337. The area between the south wall and St. John's Street was occupied by houses and gardens in 1443. The western ditch survived as Balkerne Lane until the construction of the inner relief road in 1976-7.
In the Middle Ages there were four main gates, Head gate and South or St. Botolph's gate in the south wall, North gate, and East gate. All, except perhaps South gate, were Roman in origin, although Head gate, the principal medieval gate, may have been just north of the site of the Roman gate: in 1635 there was a house in the corner formed by the wall on the south and the gate on the east, and no trace of medieval work has been seen in the small portion of the Roman gate which has been examined. South gate, if not Roman, was in existence by 1197. In addition to the main gates there were two pedestrian gates, Schere-gate in the south wall, and King's Scherde or Ryeggate in the north wall. The north postern was recorded in 1240 and was called King's Scherde before 1242; it or Scheregate, which was in existence in the 13th century, had given rise to the surname de la Scherde before 1254. A postern in the west wall near St. Mary's-at-the-Walls, an enlarged Roman drain arch, was recorded from 1473, and another in St. Peter's parish, presumably that made by Robert Leche in 1535, in 1681.
North gate, Head gate, and South gate each comprised a single large arched or square-headed gateway, suggesting that they had been rebuilt in the Middle Ages; there is no evidence for the appearance of the East gate. A house or rooms had been built over the south gate by c. 1338 and was still there in 1604. In 1358 the bailiffs and community of the town leased the north gate to a shoemaker, giving him permission to build over the gate and on an adjoining plot of land on condition that he repair the wooden gates. The borough was leasing the rooms over the north gate in 1531 and in 1736, and the gate seems to have had two storeys of building above it in 1724. Head gate too seems to have had a house or rooms above it, possibly the house whose foundations had been built into the wall at the gate by 1473, and a house extended over Scheregate by the late 15th century. John Ellis, by will dated 1485, provided for statues of St. Helen, St. Margaret, and St. John the Baptist to be placed on the East gate.
The chamberlain was accused in 1447 of failing to repair East gate and Head gate; in 1470 South gate was in ruins, and in 1474 chains at East gate and Head gate needed repair. South gate still needed repair in 1534, and in 1540 one of the aldermen was accused of selling the town gate at St. Botolph's, perhaps part of the wooden gate at South gate. St. Botolph's gate was repaired in 1609. All the gates were still standing and defensible in 1648, and withstood the siege that year. Part of East gate fell down in 1652, and more of it was pulled down as dangerous in 1676, but part of the Roman guard house on the south side of the gate survived in 1813, and that or another part of the gate was demolished by the improvement commissioners in 1819. Head gate was demolished in 1753. The top was taken off North gate in 1774, but the sides of the gate, incorporated into the adjoining houses, were not demolished until 1823. St. Botolph's gate was demolished by the improvement commissioners in 1814. Ryegate was sold, presumably for its materials, in 1659, but a staircase and the west part of the gate survived in 1671, incorporated into the adjoining house. Schere-gate presumably disappeared with its adjoining wall in the later 17th century, although its position was marked by Scheregate steps in 1990.
(An extract from the VICTORIA COUNTY HISTORY of ESSEX)
CITY OF VICTORY by Philip Crummy
The Town Wall
Tacitus had chastised the Roman authorities for not providing the town with a wall. In the light of what happened in AD 60/1, the absence of defences must have been regarded as a scandal, and from then on it became increasingly common to provide major settlements with defences. Generally these took the form of a bank and ditch, but Colonia Victricensis, the premier settlement in the province, was to get what it should have had in the first place - a town wall. In fact this was not only to be the first town wall in Britain, but (as far as we are aware) the only one for many years to come. Fortresses which were to follow the Colchester model and be converted into towns (such as Lincoln and Exeter) were from now on to retain their military defences, regardless of what space might be needed for new buildings. All new developments in these places were, initially at least, to be confined within the circuits of the military defences that they inherited.
Dating town walls is not easy, for various technical reasons, and it is a source of some embarrassment that the wall in Colchester has been given different dates over the years. The most prolific dating evidence is to be found in the rampart which was piled up behind the wall. Pottery and other finds in this material make it certain that the rampart was made somewhere within the period AD 150-200. It was thought that the rampart and the wall were raised as one and that therefore the wall belonged to the same period. However in the 1960s, an excavation by Rosalind Dunnett showed that the wall had been freestanding for some considerable time before the rampart was built. Not only was this interpretation confirmed at Lion Walk and Culver Street, but also the evidence from both these sites strongly suggests that the wall was remarkably early and dates to c AD 65-80.
Archaeologists tend to regard most town walls in Britain as belonging to the end of the 2nd century AD when there were various problems both here and on the Continent. For many years the wall at Colchester was reckoned to be of mid 2nd-century date, so it was still seen as unusual. However, the suggestion that the wall at Colchester is as early as c AD 65-50 is not something which is accepted by everyone. Yet not only does the excavated evidence (such as pottery and coins) point to such an early date, but the Boudican revolt provides an obvious and compelling corroborative context for subsequent construction.
The wall at Colonia Victricensis was a major engineering work which would have cost a great deal or money and taken years to complete. It was 2,800 m long and 8 Roman feet (2.4 m) thick. The original height is uncertain but enough is left to show that it must have been at least 6 m high including the battlements. The wall incorporated 6 gates and between 12 and 24 towers. In terms of finished masonry, the stone defences would have represented over 45,00 cubic metres of stone, tile, and mortar. It would have been built in sections. Given the scale of the Boudican disaster, we must wonder where the money came from to pay for it.
The area enclosed by the wall included the former annexe of the legionary fortress and a strip of land to the north. On the western and southern sides, the wall circuit corresponded to the position of the backfilled legionary defences. But there was a problem. The recently finished monumental gateway on the west side of town was now in the way. A compromise was reached whereby, rather than demolish the monument, it was incorporated in the new gate. However, although this meant that the monument could now be preserved, it could only be done at the expense of the defensive capabilities of the new gate. The new structure did not have the flanking towers which would normally have overlooked its gates, and it may not even have had an overhead gallery across the front. Regardless of the precise arrangement, it was not very satisfactory and was, as we shall see, to lead to the gate being blocked up and no longer used.
Method of Construction of the Town Wall
The method of building the wall is well understood. During the excavations at Lion Walk and Culver Street, vivid evidence was found of the activities of its builders. At Lion Walk, the base of what had been a large stockpile of unused building stone lay a few metres from the inner face of the wall. And at Culver Street layers of small chips of septaria showed that the masons worked the septaria on the spot rather than at the quarry or in a yard, and patches of abandoned mortar laying on wooden boards indicated how this mortar was mixed on site.
To build the wall, the Romans first dug a trench about 10 feet wide and about 4 feet deep. This was filled with layers of mortar and septaria which were simply poured or thrown in alternately until the top of the trench was reached. By this means the foundation was formed which, considering the height and weight of the structure it was to support, is surprisingly slight.
The wall itself is of ashlar construction. In other words the inner and outer faces were constructed independently of the core. The faces were raised, presumably a few courses at a time, and then the space between the two faces was filled with layers of septaria and mortar laid alternately just as in the foundation. The faces were made of neatly coursed septaria and tile, usually four courses of tile being followed by four courses of septaria. A small offset was formed at the base of the wall by making the lowest one or two courses slightly wider that the rest.
The purpose of the tile courses is not clear. The courses on the inner and outer faces match each other in terms of height above ground but do not connect up across the thickness of the wall. They are therefore not bonding courses intended to strengthen the wall. They may have been intended as a decorative feature. They may also have had a practical value during the construction work by providing a means of keeping the coursing even and on the same plane.
Of the six gates, parts of two (the Balkerne Gate and Duncan's Gate) are still visible above ground, while the remains of the other four are under modern streets (i.e. at the top of East Hill, at the south end of Head Gate, and at the foot of North Hill and of Queen Street). Between the gates there were rectangular towers set against the inside of the wall. There seems to have been one in each of the angles of the wall circuit plus one at most of the places where streets met the wall. As was customary, a deep V-shaped ditch was dug along the foot of the wall to improve its defensive capabilities.
(An extract from CITY OF VICTORY by Philip Crummy)
Location : COLCHESTER, ESSEX
IoE number : 116851
Date listed : 02 DEC 1971
Date of last amendment : 02 DEC 1971
1. The Roman Town Wall 995 TL 9925 NW 1/1 TL 9925 NE 2/1 TL 9925 SW 4/1 TL 9925 SE 5/1 TM 0025 SW 6/1 TL 9924 NW 8/1 TM 02 NW 17/1 I Probably of the late C3. Originally some 3,100 yds in length, forming a rectangle of about 1,000 yds east-west, and 510 yds north-south with rounded corners. Traceable throughout except in the south-west corner where it was much damaged by the 1648 siege. The 3 most important visible lengths are on Balkerne Hill on the west including the Balkerne Gate (qv), in the Castle Park on the north including the north-east Postern Gate and the great vaulted drain under, and the south-east corner in Priory Street. Built of layers of septaria, interspersed with 4-fold course of brick, the lowest course going right through the wall, with a core of rubble and cement. Considerable lengths of the wall still reach a height of 15 ft, and it is on average 8 ft thick. The wall was strengthened in each corner and where it was met by the internal streets by an internal solid tower the base of one can be seen in the stretch on Balkerne Hill. The wall was extensively repaired during the reign of Richard II, 1389-1399 when it was strengthened by the addition of external semi-circular solid bastions, 4 of these remain in Priory Street.
The wall was further considerably damaged in the 1648 seige, there is much brick patching in evidence in Priory Street, dating probably from the early C18. There follows a detailed description of the wall's course and construction commencing at the Balkerne Gate (qv) in the centre of the west side and proceeding in a clockwise direction. All measurements are approximate. All heights are of the outside face of the wall. The ground level on the inside is often considerably higher due to the bank of earth built as part of the fortifications. A. Palkerne Gate to North Hill 455 yds, condition good. Beginning at the Balkerne Gate (qv) the wall runs due north down the east side of Balkerne Hill. 30 yds of Roman wall (for details of construction see previous notes), 12 ft high. 15 yds of mediaeval refacing, 12 ft high. 30 yd breach caused in the Civil War. 60 yds of Roman wall, 10ft high, built on a bank. 40 yd breach filled by modern red brick wall. Approximately 280 yds of Roman wall running to the rear of the old "Coach and Horses Inn" on North Hill, 10 ft high dropping to 8 ft, with considerable mediaeval repairs, particularly in the north-west angle. B. North Hill to East Hill 1,100 yds, condition fragmentary. 80 yds of Roman wall considerably altered. Beginning between No 30 North Hill and No 1 Middleborough. 10 ft high dropping to 3 and 4 ft in yard of No 1. Behind Nos 2 and 4 Northgate Street (Northgate House) 3 ft high; then fading at the rear of Nos 8, 10 and 12 Northgate Street to the corner of Short Cut Road. 260 yds, no visible remains. The row of houses, Nos 22A-32 (even) Northgate Street are built on the course of the wall, it then runs beside or under the road to the corner of Castle Park. 40 yds with a footpath on top of remains, only modern facing visible. 15 yds to the park gate, 3 ft high, Roman with much modern facing. 12 yd gap for park gate. 120 yds, Roman wall with much mediaeval and later facing, 8-12 ft high. 5 yd gap for park gate. 90 yds of Roman wall with later facing, 10 to 12 ft high. Duncan's Gate (postern) with drain under and remains of fallen tower. 35 yds, Roman, 8 to 10 ft high, running beside No 40 Castle Road. Modern arch through to Castle Road. 100 yds to the north-east angle, Roman, 8 to 10 ft high, buttressed at angle. From the north-east angle to East Hill the wall forms the garden wall to all the houses on the east side of Roman Road (Nos 55-15 odd, Nos 14-2 consec) except for Nos 23, 21, 19, 17, 15, 14, 13, 12 and 11 where it has been largely destroyed, Thus:- 70 yds, Roman with mediaeval facing, 8 to 10 ft high; along the Private Burial Ground and Nos 55, 53, 51 and 49 Roman Road. 30 yds, Roman, 6 ft high, behind Nos 47, 45, 43, 41 and 39 Roman Road. 60 yds behind Nos 37, 35, 33, 31, 29, 27 and 25 Roman Road where it has been virtually destroyed, at first a low wall of a few old stones with modern brick, then higher but completely rebuilt. 65 yds behind Nos 23, 21, 19, 17, 15, 14, 13, 12 and 11 Roman Road, no visible remains. 80 yds to East Hill, no significant remains behind Nos 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 Roman Road and between Nos 89 and 90 East Hill. C. From East Hill to Queen Street 490 yds, condition good. 80 yds, Roman, 12 ft high with mediaeval stone and modern brick facing along St James' Churchyard to the mediaeval Bastion (see previous notes). 70 yds, Roman with mediaeval stone repairs, 12 ft high, to smith-east angle and second mediaeval bastion. 50 yd breach (Civil War) rebuilt in C18 in red brick, 12 ft high. 200 yds to Bastion V. Roman with extension repairs. Height varies between 12 and 8 ft. 40 yds, Roman, 8 ft high, with red brick Bus Depot above. 25 yd gap through bus depot buildings.
25 yds to St Botolph's Street, between Nos 48 and 50, no visible remains. D. Queen Street to Scheregate 285 yds to Scheregate, condition good. 60 yds to Bastion behind No 10 Short Wyre Street. Between Nos 1 and la St Botolph's Street and then behind Nos 1-10 (consec) Short Wyre Street. These houses have their rear walls built on the Roman wall, including the Bastion under No 10, but little remains of the original stonework. 225 yds from the Bastion to the Scheregate. Destroyed behind No 11 Short Wyre Street. Roman, 6 to 8 ft high behind Nos 27-14 (consec) Eld Lane. Gap with modern filling behind No 13 Eld Lane. Roman, 10 ft high to No 6A Eld Lane. Breach between No 6A and No 5 Eld Lane. C18 red brick wall, 10 ft high. Roman, 10 ft high, to Scheregate behind Nos 5-1 (consec) Eld Lane and between No 1 Eld Lane and No 2 Scheregate Steps. Incorporated in the buildings, partly destroyed and partly invisible. Scheregate (qv) - mediaeval, E. Scheregate to Head Street 225 yds, fragmentary to Head Street, Between No 3 Scheregate Step and No 6A Sir Isaac's Walk, no visible remains. 20 yds beneath the car park. 6 ft high, but mostly rebuilt, some stonework. Visible stonework behind No 6 Eld Lane. Bottom garden wall behind Nos 36 to 48 (consec) St John's Street, running under the southern side of Eld Lane. Very fragmentary. Running through buildings to Head Street. No visible remains, probably quite destroyed. F. Head Street to the Balkerne Gate 400 yds, fragmentary. Running at rear of Nos 3-33 Crouch Street, and Nos 2, 3, 4 and 5 Church Walk, the rear walls of the latter being built above the Roman wall. No visible remains, probably largely destroyed. 30 yds, 10 ft high, behind Nos 35, 36 and 37 Crouch Street forming garden wall of St Mary's Cottage, Church Walk. South-west angle destroyed. 20 yds, Roman, 6 ft high, behind No 8 Balkerne Lane, 25 yd gap. 20 yds Roman to postern gate behind, 10 ft high, behind Nos 14, 15 and 17 Balkerne Lane, No 17 is built into the postern gate. From the postern gate to the Balkerne Gate, 100 yds, Roman, 12 ft high, in good condition, running behind Nos 18 and Nos 25 to 31 (consecutive). The following buildings are connected with, and have possible ownership of, various portions of the Roman Wall. A. Buildings structurally connected with visible remains Balkerne Lane No 17 The Hole in the Wall Public House. Church Walk Nos 2, 3, 4 & 5. Eld Lane Nos 1, 1b, 1c, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6a, 7, 11, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27. Middleborough No 1 Northgate Street Nos 2, 4, 10 and 12. North Hill Nos 30 and 31. Queen Street Eastern Counties Bus Depot. Sir Isaac's Walk No 6. Short Wyre Street Nos 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. B. Buildingss with possible invisible remains incorporated in the foundations: nothing certain. Crouch street. Nos 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 25, 27, 31, 33 and 41. East Hill Nos 89 and 90 St Botolph's Street Nos 1 and la. Scheregate Nos 2 and 3. Short Wyre Street Nos 1, 2, 3a, 3b and 11. Sir Isaac's Walk Nos 6a and 6b. C. Buildings not directly connected with the wall but it forms part of the property boundary. Balkerne Hill Gilberd Lodge. Balkerne Lane Nos 8, 18, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31. Castle Road No 40. Crouch Street Nos 35 and 37. East Hill Church of St James. Nos 89 and 90. Eld Lane Nos 1a, 6, 8, 9, l0, 13, 14, 15 and 19. High Street Easthill House. Queen street Eastern Counties Bus Depot. Roman Road Nos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55 and the Private Burial Ground. The following of the foregoing buildings are of merit in themselves, and can be found listed under their respective streets. Balkerne Lane No 17 The Hole in the Wall Public House. Church Walk St Mary's Cottage. Crouch Street Nos 17 and 19. No 37. East Hill Church of St James. No 89 Eld Lane No 1 Nos 3 and 4 No 5. High Street Easthill House. Middleborough No 1. Northgate Street Nos 10 and 12. Scheregate No 2. No 3. Sir Issac's Walk No 6a. No 6b.
The following links will detail the official and legal aspects of the scheduling of ancient monuments.
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979
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